Results are presented using a dominant *1F allele model with *1A/*1F and *1F/*1F genotypes combined, because both groups have a similar rate of caffeine metabolism.24-26 We also investigated whether smoking status (nonsmoker, current smoker) or age (below/above median) modified the relationship between CYP1A2 genotype and MI associated with coffee intake, by performing stratified analyses and evaluating the gene × coffee interaction separately for each subgroup. Accessibility Statement. The fruit and vegetable intake of low income elderly individuals in the city of São Paulo was insufficient according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization and is associated with unfavorable socioeconomic conditions. The health benefits and risks of coffee have long been debated, with various outcomes reported (3). Epidemiologic studies examining the association between coffee consumption and risk of myocardial infarction (MI) have been inconclusive.1-14 Coffee is a major source of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), which is the most widely consumed stimulant in the world and has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular diseases such as acute MI.15-17 However, coffee contains a number of other chemicals that have variable effects on the cardiovascular system.18 Because of the strong collinearity between caffeine intake and coffee consumption in many populations, it is not clear whether caffeine alone affects the risk of MI or whether other chemicals found in coffee may be responsible. The association between coffee intake and risk of myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial. Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE. © 2021 American Medical Association. Coffee contains other chemicals that may have adverse effects on the cardiovascular system.18 Distinguishing between the effects of caffeine and those of these other compounds has been difficult, given the strong collinearity between caffeine and coffee intake in many populations. Coffee consumption and the incidence of coronary heart disease. Coffee, CYP1A2 genotype and risk of myocardial infarction. In this group, the OR (95% CI) of MI was 1.64 (1.14-2.34) for 4 cups/d or more, as compared with less than 1 cup/d. The studies exhibited heterogeneity of results. sign up for alerts, and more, to access your subscriptions, sign up for alerts, and more, to download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts, customize your interests, and more, to make a comment, download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts and more, Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry (1919-1959), JAMAevidence: The Rational Clinical Examination, JAMAevidence: Users' Guides to Medical Literature, FDA Approval and Regulation of Pharmaceuticals, 1983-2018, Global Burden of Skin Diseases, 1990-2017, Health Care Spending in the US and Other High-Income Countries, Life Expectancy and Mortality Rates in the United States, 1959-2017, Medical Marketing in the United States, 1997-2016, Practices to Foster Physician Presence and Connection With Patients in the Clinical Encounter, US Burden of Cardiovascular Disease, 1990-2016, US Burden of Neurological Disease, 1990-2017, Waste in the US Health Care System: Estimated Costs and Potential for Savings, Register for email alerts with links to free full-text articles. Categorical and continuous nondietary and energy-adjusted dietary variables were assessed for potential confounding by measuring their effect on the model parameter estimates using the likelihood ratio test. The metabolic profile of caffeine biotransformation by CYP1A2 averaged 81.5% for paraxanthine, 10.8% for theobromine and 5.4% for theophylline formation. Nevertheless, more nonsmokers than smokers had the highest enzyme indexes, suggesting that dietary elements or other factors may determine P-450IA2 activities in populations. We calculated odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) by multivariate logistic regressions to assess the AMI risk associated with a hospitalization for depression. Articles published between 1966 and August 1991 examining a possible link between coffee and coronary heart disease were identified by a computer-aided literature search (Medline) and by standard bibliographic searches. 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