The most radical anti-slavery newspaper, The Liberator, invoked the Puritans and Puritan values over a thousand times. After expanding its mission in 2014 to include battlefields of the Revolutionary War and War of 1812, the non-profit became the American Battlefield Trust in May 2018, operating with two divisions, the Civil War Trust and the Revolutionary War Trust.  Of the 168,649 men procured for the Union through the draft, 117,986 were substitutes, leaving only 50,663 who had their services conscripted.  The Confederates lost Albert Sidney Johnston, considered their finest general before the emergence of Lee. For all of the Crown's legal authority, its resources were limited by any modern standard to an extent that if the gentry refused to collect the king's taxes on a national scale, the Crown lacked a practical means of compelling them. , Numerous small-scale military actions south and west of Missouri sought to control Indian Territory and New Mexico Territory for the Union. have claimed it as a Southern grievance. The Republicans' counterargument that slavery was the mainstay of the enemy steadily gained support, with the Democrats losing decisively in the 1863 elections in the northern state of Ohio when they tried to resurrect anti-black sentiment. , By early 1861, General Winfield Scott had devised the Anaconda Plan to win the war with as little bloodshed as possible. Bragg's second invasion of Kentucky in the Confederate Heartland Offensive included initial successes such as Kirby Smith's triumph at the Battle of Richmond and the capture of the Kentucky capital of Frankfort on September 3, 1862. He argues that the non-owner soldiers grew embittered about fighting to preserve slavery and fought less enthusiastically. Military history has largely developed outside academia, leading to a proliferation of studies by non-scholars who nevertheless are familiar with the primary sources and pay close attention to battles and campaigns, and who write for the general public, rather than the scholarly community. , Sectionalism resulted from the different economies, social structure, customs, and political values of the North and South.  However, Lincoln was angry that Meade failed to intercept Lee's retreat. In the early 19th century, Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "the Great Civil War". The draft riot in New York City in July 1863 involved Irish immigrants who had been signed up as citizens to swell the vote of the city's Democratic political machine, not realizing it made them liable for the draft. A body within the Puritan movement in the Church of England sought to abolish the office of bishop and remake the Church of England along Presbyterian lines.  The Triennial Act required Parliament to be summoned at least once in three years. , In both the North and South, the draft laws were highly unpopular. Parliamentarian forces led by the Earl of Manchester besieged the port of King's Lynn, Norfolk, which under Sir Hamon L'Estrange held out until September. An Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves sailed through Congress with little opposition. On 4 April 1660, in the Declaration of Breda, Charles II made known the conditions of his acceptance of the Crown of England.  However, a 2017 study challenges this, noting that while some Southern elites retained their economic status, the turmoil of the 1860s created greater opportunities for economic mobility in the South than in the North. Following the capture of Port Royal, an expedition was organized with engineer troops under the command of Captain Quincy A. Gillmore, forcing a Confederate surrender. These carried matchlock muskets, an inaccurate weapon which nevertheless could be lethal at a range of up to 300 yards.  Parliament dissolved the Committee of Both Kingdoms when the alliance ended, but its English members continued to meet as the Derby House Committee.  As the former Member of Parliament Admiral Robert Blake blockaded Prince Rupert's fleet in Kinsale, Cromwell could land at Dublin on 15 August 1649 with an army to quell the Royalist alliance. The controversy eventually led to Laud's impeachment for treason by a bill of attainder in 1645 and subsequent execution. As horrific as this new number is, it fails to reflect the mortality of former slaves during the war. Black troops made up 10 percent of the Union death toll, they amounted to 15 percent of disease deaths but less than 3 percent of those killed in battle. "Union population 1864" aggregates 1860 population, average annual immigration 1855–1864, and population governed formerly by CSA per Kenneth Martis source. Others point to less overtly political reasons to fight, such as the defense of one's home and family, or the honor and brotherhood to be preserved when fighting alongside other men.  Thanks to Lambert's successes, the Scottish commander, the Duke of Hamilton, had to take a western route through Carlisle in his pro-Royalist Scottish invasion of England. , Professional historians have paid much more attention to the causes of the war, than to the war itself. Hostilities began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. The states that remained were known as the "Union" or the "North". , Memory of the war in the white South crystallized in the myth of the "Lost Cause": that the Confederate cause was a just and heroic one. The Whig view was challenged and largely superseded by the Marxist school, which became popular in the 1940s, and saw the English Civil War as a bourgeois revolution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. It omits losses from contraband and after the Emancipation Proclamation, freedmen migrating to the Union controlled coastal ports and those joining advancing Union armies, especially in the Mississippi Valley. Public opinion, however, demanded an immediate attack by the army to capture Richmond. 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