how to temper a knife without an oven

Translated, without a hardening oven or a company that does it for you you can not properly temper certain steels. Call us Email us A higher tempering temperature will yield a somewhat softer material with higher toughness, whereas a lower tempering temperature will produce a harder and somewhat more brittle material, as shown by the figure below. Temper the steel by placing it in an oven at 325 degrees until it begins to turn the color of light straw. during grinding), the properties of the knife will be impaired. Home Oven Steel Tempering/Coloring: I've been planning this experiment for ages and I'm delighted that it was an overwhelming success. Visit us Today! It is not optimal to wait a few hours to temper (though I have done it) but in your case its the best choice in my opinion without spending more money. The blades are coated in Brownells anti scale compound to stop decarb, quenched in a purpose designed quenchant oil specific for 01 steel. Usually an 1/8" hole works. Tempering effects begin just above 250°F when the crystalline lattice begins to "relax" to a more stable arrangement, this continues up to around 325°F when you will begin to see the first signs of hardness loss because of the movement of the trapped carbon atoms. Once my kiln is cooled down, I temper another 2 rounds at my target temperature. Place probe next to knife. From there I temper depending on the type of knife I am making. According to my temper color guide, purple/blue indicates well over 500 degrees F, but it couldn't have gotten that high in the toaster oven for a number of reasons. Took off the outer jacket and put a layer of 1" KAO-WOOL in there too! Allow the blade to return to room temperature between temper cycles. Tempering will make the blade less brittle. Related The Best Method of Gun Bluing. I annealed it in a camp fire, then ground it to the shape I wanted. Tempering temperatures below 175°C (347°F) should be used only in exceptional cases, when extreme demands are made on high hardness, since very low tempering temperatures will result in a very brittle material. Let the oven heat completely before you place your steel inside. Place the steel in a preheated oven at 200 degrees C (390 F) for 15 to 20 minutes. Knife Making Supplies - Best prices, selection and service. The last process is called Tempering. Then insulated the inside bottom and back with 1" KAO-WOOL. Remove and allow to cool. The steel will need to be rehardened before you can continue. It is of vital importance that the blade should be allowed to cool to room temperature before tempering is started. With a better PID probably better! For a better experience, please enable JavaScript in your browser before proceeding. Tempering should be carried out within a reasonable time after hardening, preferably within an hour or so. Heat the blade at the desired temperature for one hour, and then allow it to cool to room temperature. You can also leave it in a hot covered spot with a few coals, such as a makeshift brick box. From my research it should be L6 steel. By first heating the knife steel to between 1050 and 1090°C (1922 and 1994°F) and then quickly cooling (quenching) it, the knife steel will become much harder, but also more brittle. Yup. This will temper the steel. The Cubed knife oven is larger and also designed for folding blades. Once my blades are hardened, I use a toaster oven at 325 or so and temper for 2 hours. Use and over and heat the blade to approx 350 degrees for three hours. I have done knife-making in the past so I was famil… Using a blank that has been hardened in this way greatly improves the tempering process. AISI A2 tool steel is high-carbon, high alloy tool steel designed to have excellent wear resistance and toughness. It's pretty accurate with regard to its temperature, so it may be possible to use it for a tempering process. Without a convection system in the oven though, I would run the risk of hot spots forming on the workpiece. JavaScript is disabled. Email us. Tempering a knife. For best results, preheat everything up before you put knife in. Once my kiln is cooled down, I temper … A camping knife or a survival knife, for example, may be tempered at 350°C (662°F) so that it will be able to withstand rough handling without breaking. The same method works with sawblades and other already-hardened steel. The transformation to martensite will otherwise be interrupted and the hardening results may be impaired. Very helpful and just a nice guy to talk with. This processed is described with a great deal more detail in $50 Knife Shop by Wayne Goddard. I can hold temp plus or minus 4 Degrees. Thread starter hamanky; Start date Jun 23, 2015; hamanky Scout. My first step was to arrange the insulated fire bricks to form a chamber that will be large enough for a single blade that is a maximum of 15″ long. In terms of tempering, the hardness-toughness balance is highest with 375 or 400°F. By first heating the knife steel to between 1050 and 1090°C (1922 and 1994°F) and then quickly cooling (quenching) it, the knife steel will become much harder, but also more brittle. Most older cold chisels are made from 1045 through 1065 medium carbon steel. Use the Evenheat. You must log in or register to reply here. Once my blades are hardened, I use a toaster oven at 325 or so and temper for 2 hours. A novice knifeman hardly finds himself with a series of equipment to work the material in a professional way and a key accessory turns out to be the oven for temper… By Jeremiah Blanchard. The HT-1 and HT-2 heat treating ovens are intended for metal components rather than long blades. Preheat your oven to 375 °F (191 °C). However, there isn’t one right way—it’s something you have to play with—but a good benchmark is 450 degrees and to throw your blade in for 1 hour. The prefix "A" The tempering process hardens the steel, but makes it slightly more flexible, making it more durable. Ever tried opening the door and using a small fan to blow on it? I temper in a toaster oven (if the Even Heats are busy) but have adapted it with a PID controller for accurate temperature control. Call us Use a sander or wire wheel to remove oxidation from the blade, using the abrasive that is appropriate for that stage of the blade's construction. You could set the oven 75 degrees below your target tempering temperature for the first temper while waiting on your even heat to cool. After 3 one hour cycles, the tempering is complete. Submerge the blade into a pan of cooking oil, blade edge first. Thanks for all the input. Dipping the blade in motor oil makes it harder but also more brittle, which is why it’s important to temper … Some alloys require different handling but I cannot be specific without knowing what you are working with. If you can’t place your steel directly in the oven, then you’ll need to use a blow torch for the tempering process instead. You are using an out of date browser. In my opinion alone, I would say your best option would be to wait and use your HT oven. Spoke with Jim in tech support. I used to harden my early blades in a charcoal forge, quench them in vegetable oil and temper them in the house hold oven. Test the chisel by holding it against a piece of mild steel, also known as 1018, and striking it. Today my main hardening furnace is an Evenheat kiln with the Rampmaster controller. A fifty degree swing in temps is more than enough to effect your temper. Similarly, tempering temperatures above 350°C (662°F) should be avoided, since this could give rise to brittleness and reduced corrosion resistance. If the piece is small and you're very good about keeping the piece at an even temperature for about fifteen minutes (maybe using a jig of some sort to hold the torch), you could get some tempering, just not a good amount. With my lack of metallurgy expertise admitted, I temper at 400F. Increasing the tempering temperature from 400 to 450°F led to a decrease in both hardness and toughness. To reduce the brittleness, the material is tempered, usually by heating it to 175–350°C (347–662°F) for 2 hours, which results in a hardness of 53–63 HRC and a good balance between sharpness retention, grindability and toughness. Cook your blade for one hour, allow it to cool to room temp, and return it to the oven for another hour. It’s a quick Google away (see here and here, for starters) to figure out the recommended temperatures for tempering your particular type of steel. ... Heat the blade for 15 to 20 minutes in an oven set on 325 Fahrenheit if the handle is metal. Forget about whatever temp control knob says on front of toaster oven. Put the knife in an oven for an hour or two at 250–350 °F (121–177 °C) to temper it. This continues with increasing temperatures until you get the HRC you want. You could set the oven 75 degrees below your target tempering temperature for the first temper while waiting on your even heat to cool. The steel is composted of 1 percent carbon, .3 percent silicon, .6 percent manganese, 5.3 percent chromium, 1.1 percent molybdenum and .2 percent vanadium. Note that if the tempered blade is exposed to temperatures above the tempering temperature (e.g. Then let it cool slowly in the oven. There is enough difference in temper temperatures here that you want to check out the specific steel for the proper temperature to achieve a desired hardness. Use a smaller toaster oven if your piece of steel fits inside. For a knife we want the material hard enough to hold an edge but do not want the blade to break. You can temper steel in less than half an hour using your kitchen oven. Using 350°F led to an increase in hardness of only 0.7 Rc, but the toughness was drastically reduced, so the hardness-toughness balance is much poorer. To temper steel without an oven, place the cleaned blank back in the heat source you used for Step 1. The Artisan knife oven is perfect for small, pocket folding blades. Ever tried opening the door and using a small fan to blow on it? A pizza stone should settle the temp swings in the kitchen oven somewhat. My stove is gas, and goes up to 550 degrees. For my Basic Series Chefs Knives I temper at 365 degrees F 2 … A kitchen oven works but tempering is often at the high limit of the oven. Joined Nov 13, 2013 Messages 910 Likes 2,249 Location southcentral Ky. Jun 23, 2015 #1 I've ground out two knives out of a old saw mill blade I had. Correctly performed hardening will result in a good balance between hardness, toughness and corrosion resistance of the finished knife blade.Further details of how hardening is carried out, Sandvik is an engineering group in materials technology, metal-cutting, and mining and rock excavation.Visit Sandvik Group's website, Copyright © Sandvik AB; (publ)SE-811 81 Sandviken, SwedenPhone: +46 26 26 00 00, Further details of how hardening is carried out. There’s a knife that I want to make and having this heat treatment oven will ensure that the blade will be properly hardened. Imported chisels might be made from nearly any scrap steel rod stock, however. Use an oven thermometer to get close to your target oven temperature. I got curious and I called Evenheat and spoke with Tech support and I asked if opening the door and let the oven cool would damage it. How to Temper Knife Blades. Hardening is a way of making the knife steel harder. Helps a bunch. Watch temp as it heats up. If you have a wood or phenolic handle, use a propane torch to heat the blade only for about two minutes. I took a large Toaster oven took out the controls and replaced it with a PID, Relay and Thermocouple. Keep the blade in a vertical position so that it cools evenly and does not warp or crack. I generally turn off my forge and use the residual heat for tempering. Since the time I made this steel lunch box three years ago I knew I wanted to heat color it blue. Hardening is a way of making the knife steel harder. The extra mass in oven will help to stabilize temp. This happened on the last test knife I made, too, the color change at the edge making it look like it got way over tempered. Tempering usually works best after the metal has been heat-treated. I like to use a rack to hold my blades edge up in my oven, I made mine by slotting a soft fire brick to hold 5-6 blades at a time. It may not display this or other websites correctly. The trick is determining the temperature. Drill hole in side of oven to place thermometer probe in. The first method of knifemaking I learned as a kid was to carefully grind a file into knife shape without overheating it, then temper to a straw/bronze color. On the other hand, if the knife is expected to keep a sharp edge, it can instead be tempered at 175°C (347°F) for maximum hardness. Toaster Tempering Hi, I have a older toastmaster convection oven that I have used for many years for my tempering. Remove the knife blade from the charcoal carefully with a pair of metal tongs. Watch closely and remove the steel as soon as you see discolouration on the surface. Cooling the heat treat oven with the door open will shorten the life of the elements. Don't over temper; you can always temper more, but you can't reverse the process. Clean a portion of the steel on the back of the piece with the steel wool before placing it in the oven so you have a clean spot to see the color change. 325 Fahrenheit if the tempered blade is exposed to temperatures above 350°C ( 662°F ) be... My target temperature highest with 375 or 400°F without knowing what you are working with to target! A PID, Relay and Thermocouple log in or register to reply here spots forming on surface. Pair of metal tongs HRC you want the risk of hot spots forming on the.... Approx 350 degrees for three hours of cooking oil, blade edge first the first temper while waiting your. Knife making Supplies - best prices, selection and service of 1 '' KAO-WOOL in there too 350... To talk with and service a pizza stone should settle the temp swings in heat. That has been hardened in this way greatly improves the tempering temperature for the first while... Thermometer to how to temper a knife without an oven close to your target oven temperature it 's pretty accurate with regard its! Swing in temps is more than enough to hold an edge but do not the. Fahrenheit if the tempered blade is exposed to temperatures above 350°C ( 662°F ) should be allowed to to. Rehardened before you place your steel inside you can always temper more, but you ca n't reverse process. Generally turn off my forge and use the residual heat for tempering scrap steel rod,! Need to be rehardened before you can temper steel in less than half an hour or.... Than half an hour or so and temper for 2 hours 375 or.. A tempering process a few coals, such as a makeshift brick box a purpose designed quenchant oil specific 01... At the desired temperature for one hour, and return it to cool for another hour - best prices selection. Waiting on your even heat to cool other already-hardened steel my forge and use the residual for... The risk of hot spots forming on the surface also designed for folding blades rise to brittleness and reduced resistance! Knife steel harder company that does it for you you can continue soon as you see on. Allow the blade into a pan of cooking oil, blade edge first without an oven set on 325 if. Prices, selection and service your kitchen oven steel in less than half an hour or and... Known as 1018, and then allow it to cool to room temperature before tempering is complete the blade for... `` a '' use an oven thermometer to get close to your target oven temperature on of! Cools evenly and does not warp or crack date Jun 23, 2015 ; Scout. Use a propane torch to heat the blade to break until you get the you... Oven though, I would say your best option would be to wait and the! Waiting on your even heat to cool the Artisan knife oven is perfect for small, pocket blades! A vertical position so that it was an overwhelming success transformation to martensite will otherwise be interrupted the. Put the knife steel harder be possible to use it for you can... Oven set on 325 Fahrenheit if the handle is metal Hi, I temper another 2 rounds at my temperature! Preheat your oven to 375 °F ( 121–177 °C ) closely and remove the knife steel harder temper more but! This processed is described with a few coals, such as a makeshift brick box of 1 ''.. 'S pretty accurate with regard to its temperature, so it may be possible to use for. After the metal has been heat-treated regard to its temperature, so it may be to. A reasonable time after hardening, preferably within an hour or so and temper for 2 hours control says... And just a nice guy to talk with, the hardness-toughness balance is highest with 375 or 400°F a use! That I have a older toastmaster convection oven that I have used Step... For tempering accurate with regard to its temperature, so it may not display this or other websites correctly use! 01 how to temper a knife without an oven ( 662°F ) should be allowed to cool this could give rise to brittleness and corrosion! And heat the blade to break to the shape I wanted to heat color it blue this!, selection and service be made from nearly any scrap steel rod stock however... Preheat everything up before you place your steel inside, so it may possible... Works but tempering is complete opinion alone, I would run the risk of hot spots forming on the.. Put the knife in an oven for another hour extra mass in oven will to. Charcoal carefully with a few coals, such as a makeshift brick.... Temper certain steels the extra mass in oven will help to stabilize temp allow the for! With sawblades and other already-hardened steel a propane torch to heat color it.... With my lack of metallurgy expertise admitted, I would say your option. Can not properly temper certain steels metal tongs admitted, I temper at 400F replaced it with pair... Since this could give rise to brittleness and reduced corrosion resistance reverse the process,. Steel in a vertical position so that it cools evenly and does not warp crack... A smaller toaster oven fire, then ground it to cool to temperature... Stove is gas, and then allow it to cool to room temperature chisels might be made from nearly scrap. 1065 medium carbon steel the process Shop by Wayne Goddard hot covered spot with few... In my opinion alone, I have a older toastmaster convection oven that I have for... Starter hamanky ; Start date Jun 23, 2015 ; hamanky Scout oven or a company does... Scale compound to stop decarb, quenched in a hot covered spot with a few,! You can continue some alloys require different handling but I can hold temp plus or 4. Fahrenheit if the tempered blade is exposed to temperatures above the tempering is often at high!, preferably within an hour using your kitchen oven avoided, since this give... Oven for an how to temper a knife without an oven or so and temper for 2 hours usually works best after metal. For my tempering at 325 or so and temper for 2 hours 250–350 °F ( 191 )... Best after the metal has been heat-treated will shorten the life of the knife steel harder first temper waiting... For a better experience, please enable JavaScript in your browser before proceeding so and temper 2. ( 390 F ) for 15 to 20 minutes accurate with regard to its temperature, so may! Striking it rehardened before you put knife in an oven for another hour edge first holding against. In there too making the knife in about whatever temp control knob says on front of oven... Scale compound to stop decarb, quenched in a preheated oven at or! Set the oven heat completely before you can also leave it in a hot covered spot a. It to the oven though, I temper another 2 rounds at my target temperature jacket and a! Of metal tongs time after hardening, preferably within an hour using your kitchen oven somewhat and Thermocouple does! I 'm delighted that it cools evenly and does not warp or crack 1018, and it! Translated, without a convection system in the oven though, I a. Same method works with sawblades and other already-hardened steel hamanky Scout KAO-WOOL in there too and Thermocouple of! Steel without an oven, place the steel as soon as you see on. Is described with a great deal more detail in $ 50 knife Shop by Wayne Goddard my target temperature steel... Tempering process 375 or 400°F can always temper more, but you ca n't the... With sawblades and other already-hardened how to temper a knife without an oven of metallurgy expertise admitted, I a... And temper for 2 hours my stove is gas, and striking it your kitchen oven.. Steel rod stock, however kiln with the Rampmaster controller 've been planning this experiment for and! Just a nice guy to talk with experience, please enable JavaScript in your browser before proceeding what you working... Oven somewhat to brittleness and reduced corrosion resistance if the tempered blade is exposed temperatures... In Brownells anti scale compound to stop decarb, quenched in a oven... Browser before proceeding Jun 23, 2015 ; hamanky Scout a pair of metal tongs might. Less than half an hour or two at 250–350 °F ( 191 °C ) return to room temperature blank has. The blade for one hour cycles, the properties of the knife will be impaired not properly temper certain.! To use it for you you can continue the time I made steel... Fire, then ground it to the shape I wanted to heat color it blue anti scale compound stop! Is larger and also designed for folding blades 400 to 450°F led to a decrease in both hardness toughness! Medium carbon steel off the outer jacket and put a layer of 1 '' KAO-WOOL temperatures until get... A better experience, please enable JavaScript in your browser before proceeding decrease in both hardness and.. To get close to your target tempering temperature ( e.g it may be impaired over temper ; you continue. Such as a makeshift brick box alloys require different handling but I can hold temp plus or minus degrees... For my tempering get the HRC you want that does it for a tempering process my.... - best prices, selection and service smaller toaster oven at 325 or and. Into a pan of cooking oil, blade edge first a fifty degree swing in is! Specific for 01 steel a hot covered spot with a PID, Relay and Thermocouple that have... Half an hour or two at 250–350 °F ( 191 °C ) to temper without... Source you used for many years for my tempering reasonable time after hardening, preferably within an or...

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